API stands for American Petroleum Institute [url=http://www.cheapbroncosjersey.com/daesean-hamilton-jersey/]Authentic DaeSean Hamilton Jersey[/url] , a body that designates standards for pipe used primarily in the petroleum and water industries. API drill pipe and line pipe is suitable for conveying oil, gas, and water and may be seamless or welded. Pipe for these purposes may have plain ends, or the ends may be prepared or threaded for use with certain types of couplings. Under the API 5L designation are two product spec levels: PSL1 and PSL2. PSL1 pipe may be used in structural applications or for plant piping, while PSL2 is mostly used in pipeline where more rigorous standards apply. Impact testing is not mandatory for PSL1 pipe, but it is required for the PSL2 designation.
How API Drill Pipe is Inspected
API pipe is inspected in order to find surface marks like cracks and pits. Other measurements include wall thickness, outside diameter, and inside cross-sectional area. The inspection process is designed to ensure quality of pipe and to reduce the risk for non-conforming pipe. While standards are important, they cannot be a substitute for good engineering of a drill string or pipeline, and some applications may have more stringent requirements than what is done with API inspections. While API standards are used for sourcing line pipe and drill pipe, they may not be complete enough for some pipe uses.
The Importance of API Certification
A fatigue crack forming and propagating can be disastrous for a project, so it is important that engineers know what types of stresses the pipe will be subjected to. For example, higher mean tensile stress can shorten the life of a pipe, and corrosive environments also tend to shorten the life of API pipe. Tougher pipe material can support a larger crack before failure, all other factors being equal.
Types of API 5L Line Pipe
Standard pipe under the API 5L designation may be graded "A," "B," or "X." The "X" designations are followed by a number representing the pipe's specified minimum yield strength. Yield strength is given in kilo-pounds per square inch (ksi). As one example, X60 pipe has minimum yield strength of 60 ksi. Grades also incorporate tensile strength (also given in ksi), yield strength to tensile strength ratio, and minimum elongation. API 5L Grade A pipe, for example, has a yield strength minimum of 30 ksi, and a tensile strength minimum of 48 ksi. Grade A pipe has minimum elongation of 28%. At the other end of the scale, Grade X80 pipe has a yield strength minimum of 80 ksi, a tensile strength minimum of 90 ksi, and elongation minimum of 16%.
Oil, Gas, and Water Applications
The importance of pipe that meets API standards cannot be overstated, and as oil and gas drilling increase worldwide, demand for API pipe is expected to increase over the coming years. Your source for line pipe and drill pipe must have adequate worldwide inventories of products meeting API and other specifications so that your project can go forward without interruptions. Knowing that your pipe meets relevant industry specifications allows you to move ahead with your project with confidence.
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